Extended structure

12 Jan 2009

House: Inorganic Chemistry

Submitted by Adam R. Johnson, Harvey Mudd College
Description: 

House (Inorganic chemistry):  The book is divided into 5 parts:  first, an introductory section on atomic structure, symmetry, and bonding; second, ionic bonding and solids; third, acids, bases and nonaqueous solvents; fourth, descriptive chemistry; and fifth, coordination chemistry.  The first three sections are short, 2-4 chapters each, while the descriptive section (five chapters) and coordination chemistry section (seven chapters covering ligand field theory, spectroscopy, synthesis and reaction chemistry, organometallics, and bioinorganic chemistry.) are longer.  Each chapter includes references (both texts and primary literature) for further reading, and a few problems (answers not available in the back of the book). 

I thought the text was generally good.  This text felt aimed at the introductory one-semester inorganic course offered at most schools rather than an advanced (senior/grad) course.  Although MO theory is developed in the text, most of the coordination chemistry is described using crystal field theory, though a short section on MO theory for complexes is included.  The sections on descriptive chemistry of the elements are very good and not overloaded with too much information, and the writing style (throughout the text) is easy to read and conversational.

My main complaint about the book, and this may seem petty, is that the molecular orbitals (throughout) do not accurately depict the way actual orbitals look;  they are too "pointy." 

The list price for the student text is $99.95 for a paperback, 864p version.

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27 Dec 2008

Inorganic Chemistry Just Makes You Want to Sing!

Submitted by Maggie Geselbracht, Reed College
Description: 

Here is a fun way to learn about inorganic chemistry!  These songs were composed and passed along to me by Tom Mallouk at Penn State with his permission to post here on VIPEr.  I Can't Get No Bragg Diffraction was a joint effort put together one year at a Gordon Research Conference on Solid State Chemistry.  Sorry, no recording!  The tune n-doped, recorded by the Band Edges, covers the electronic structure behind semiconductor devices.  Download the lyrics for both and the mp3 file for n-doped!  There is a music video for n-doped with the lyrics captioned that can be found on Tom Mallouk's group web site.

 

You can also extend this musical activity with Tom Mallouk's Hey Little Ions (available on YouTube) and the Musical Chemistry Karaoke site.  My personal favorite is I Believe in MO Theory.

Learning Goals: 

To share a smile and a laugh about inorganic chemistry...

Prerequisites: 
Corequisites: 
Equipment needs: 

Speakers

Implementation Notes: 

You can play chemistry karaoke!  Or challenge the students to compose their own chemistry songs!

Time Required: 
5-10 minutes
28 Nov 2008
Evaluation Methods: 
The students are assessed through the performance task of answering one or more of the discussion questions included as a separate document.
Evaluation Results: 
I used this paper as the basis for a 25-minute oral exam, so we only covered a few of the discussion questions, particularly as the student had difficulty drawing a connection to the Nernst equation and the pH dependence of redox potentials.
Description: 
This learning object focuses on a discussion of a recent paper that highlights the application of electrochemistry in inorganic materials chemistry: “Direct Electrodeposition of Cu2Sb for Lithium-Ion Battery Anodes” by James M. Mosby and Amy L. Prieto, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2008, 130, 10656-10661.  This article describes the current challenges to designing new lithium ion battery anodes and the use of cyclic voltammetry and electrodeposition to prepare the intermetallic anode material, Cu2Sb, in crystalline form directly from aqueous solutions of copper(II) and antimony(III).
Corequisites: 
Prerequisites: 
Course Level: 
Learning Goals: 

A student should be able to explain the chemistry behind how a lithium ion battery works, the limitations of current materials, and gain perspective on some of the materials challenges involved in making a better lithium battery.

A student should be able to interpret the cyclic voltammetry data that is presented, understand the authors' conclusions, and apply their knowledge of the Nernst equation to explain how the reduction potential of species in solution can be shifted by either changing pH or by the addition of complexing agents.

A student should be able to explain the advantages and disadvantages of electrodeposition as a materials synthesis technique including the choice of whether to use controlled potential electrolysis or controlled current electrolysis.

A student should be able to describe the additional analytical techniques, X-ray powder diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, used to characterize the materials discussed in this paper and interpret the value added by these experimental results.


Related activities: 
Implementation Notes: 
I have used this paper as a basis of an oral exam that focused on a current paper from the inorganic literature, drawing questions from the list of discussion questions as needed.  A fellow member of IONiC used this paper as a discussion activity in an Analytical Chemistry and Instrumentation course in the midst of a unit on electrochemistry.  In this case, he divided up the discussion questions between different pairs of students to present during class.
Time Required: 
1 hr
28 Jul 2008

Hands-On Experience with Close Packing

Submitted by Patrick Holland, Yale University
Evaluation Results: 
This is always enjoyable and moderately challenging. Some groups will need some help along the way.
Description: 
This is a really fun Challenge where student use two colors of marbles to simulate close packing. It culminates in them creating the face-centered cube "hidden" in hexagonal close packing.
Prerequisites: 
Corequisites: 
Course Level: 
Topics Covered: 
Equipment needs: 
Boxes (typically from disposable pipettes), clear and blue marbles about 12 mm diameter, 20 mm water bath balls (VWR), small ruler.
Implementation Notes: 
see end of file
Time Required: 
1 hour
27 Jul 2008

Polyhedral Model Kit Video Lab Manual (Jmol)

Submitted by Mike Condren, Christian Brothers University
Description: 

Some interactive Jmol models of some common crystal systems and some geological systems.

http://chemistry.beloit.edu/edetc/pmks/index.html

Prerequisites: 
Corequisites: 
Implementation Notes: 

Can show why water expands when it freezes.

Can show the cavities of zeolytes.

2 Apr 2008

Solid-state model building exercise

Submitted by Joanne Stewart, Hope College
Evaluation Methods: 

I grade their answers to the worksheet questions, and I develop a test question where students are given a model they haven’t seen before and asked to describe the geometry and give the empirical formula. For the test, I typically use a structure with two cations, such as CaTiO3, because it is a little illustrates more of the concepts and provides a slightly more challenging empirical formula.

Evaluation Results: 

The students can easily describe the "standard" structures like NaCl or fluorite, but struggle to describe the layered structures. In particular, if the coordination geometry of the cation is not tetrahedral or octahedral (there's one that's cubic and one that's trigonal prismatic), they're really not sure what to write. Typically, a student will raise a question about these "unusual" cases, and they are discussed on the class discussion board before the students turn in the assignment.

Description: 

Students construct models of ionic solids in class and answer a series of questions about the structures.

Learning Goals: 

Students can build a model of an ionic solid that is ccp or hcp anions with cations in the octahedral and/or tetrahedral holes.

Students can describe the solid (using the words hcp, ccp, and octahedral/tetrahedral holes).

Students can determine the empirical formula from the structure.

Students can look at an already constructed model (one that they did not build) and do these things.

Prerequisites: 
Corequisites: 
Equipment needs: 

Solid state model kits from ICE; at least 1 kit per 4 students. See "Solid State Model Kits" at the bottom of this page: http://ice.chem.wisc.edu/Catalog/SciKits.htm#Anchor-Solid-31140. I use the student version.

Topics Covered: 
Course Level: 
Implementation Notes: 

I adapted this from an exercise I got from Maggie Geselbracht. I typically have each group build NaCl in class for practice, then I assign them one of the structures on the worksheet, which they build in class. After that, we leave the structures out on a big countertop in the room, with the instruction book open to the appropriate page underneath, so they know which structure is which. Students are allowed to come in on their own time to complete the assignment.

Time Required: 
50 minutes in class to provide instruction on how to build models, have pairs of students build one model, and have students begin to answer worksheet questions. Students come in outside of class to look at models and answer remaining questions.
2 Apr 2008

Lanthanum gallium bismuthide

Submitted by Maggie Geselbracht, Reed College
Evaluation Methods: 
Student performance on the discussion questions is assessed.
Evaluation Results: 
Often students have trouble even thinking about assigning reasonable formal oxidation states for these elements.
Description: 
This paper describes the synthesis and characterization of a new structurally interesting polybismuthide. The bonding is understood through band structure calculations and a retrotheoretical approach, analyzing the interactions of smaller substructures. Discussion is focused on the Ga-Ga bonding interactions and the weaker Ga-Bi and Bi-Bi interactions within the one-dimensional bismuth ribbons. This is a nice illustration of what a chemist can learn from the band structures of an extended solid and exposes students to an interesting combination of elements in the periodic table that are often overlooked.
Course Level: 
Implementation Notes: 
I teach the essentials of band theory for extended solids using the text by Roald Hoffmann, "Solids and Surfaces: A Chemist's View of Bonding in Extended Structures." Band theory builds nicely upon any advanced discussion of molecular orbital theory. We discussed this paper after covering most of the Hoffmann text, and it served as a nice illustration of many of the principles of band theory, including understanding the physical properties of the material (in this case, metallic conducitivity).
Time Required: 
50 minutes
28 Mar 2008

Miessler and Tarr: Inorganic Chemistry, 3rd. Ed

Submitted by Nancy Scott Burke Williams, Scripps College, Pitzer College, Claremont McKenna College
Description: 

Miessler and Tarr is an inorganic textbook which is is best suited to an upper-division one-semester inorganic course, though there is more material than can be covered in a single semester, so some choice of topics is necessary.  It is very well suited for a course oriented around structure, bonding, and reaction chemistry of transition metal compounds, but is very limited in its treatment of solids, main-group, descriptive chemistry, and bioinorganic.  Pchem would be helpful but is not necessary.  In particular, the treatment of MO theory is very in-depth.  The quality of end-of chapter problems is generally good.  The book is fairly readable, giving it an advantage over some of the more "reference work" style textbooks, but as a result, is a less useful text to have on your bookshelf five years hence.  Pearson Higher Ed. suggests a retail price of $144.20.  

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Corequisites: 
Course Level: 
26 Mar 2008

Housecroft and Sharpe: Inorganic Chemistry, 3ed

Submitted by Lori Watson, Earlham College
Description: 

Housecroft and Sharpe (Inorganic Chemistry, 3ed): This is a comprehensive inorganic textbook designed primarily for students at the Junior/Senior level. P-Chem would not be needed as a prerequisite for this text, but would be helpful. It includes both theoretical and descriptive material along with special topics, enough for a two semester course though it is easily adaptable to a one-semester "advanced inorganic" course by choosing only some topics. It is written in a clear and generally readable style and the full-color graphic contribute to student understanding. Ancillaries include electronic versions of most figures, and a student site with a limited number of multiple choice review questions for each chapter. The 3rd edition updates the end-of -the-chapter problems, though disappointingly does not draw problems from the recent literature. In general, these are good review problems to make sure students understand the basic concepts, but some faculty will want to supplement student assignments with more challenging problems. The list price for the student text is $175 for a paperback, 1098p version.

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18 Nov 2007

From molecules to solids: Lewis structures

Submitted by Barbara Reisner, James Madison University
Description: 

I have students construct Lewis structures on the board starting at the noble gases and working backwards to the group 14 elements.  We talk about both second period then heavier elements.  As we move across the period we transition from molecular solids to extended solids.  

This is a nice transition from molecular chemistry to extended compounds.  I use this as a bridge into the solid state portion of the course because it allows me to review Lewis structures, trends in bond energies, and provide some descriptive chemistry information. 

 Need to think about assessment.

Subdiscipline: 
Prerequisites: 
Equipment needs: 
CrystalMaker or a viewer to see the files that I'll eventually construct.
Corequisites: 
Course Level: 

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