Students completed this activity in small groups, then turned in individual worksheets. Student learning and performance were assessed through 1) in-class group discussion after they had worked on the activity in small groups, and 2) grading the individual worksheets. Participation was most important in the small-group portion.
In general, students really enjoyed this exercise and felt that it was helpful for visualizing metal-organic frameworks (particularly the extended 3D structure). They also generally felt that it was helpful in visualizing the bonding sites of metal vertices, particularly for thinking about how that influences potential reactivity. We used Mercury as a visualization software for this discussion, and the majority of students felt very comfortable using Mercury and looking at cifs on their own after this activity.
The biggest challenge for students seemed to be in relating the 3D structure in the cif to the images and chemicals formulas in the article. They also tended to need some hints about question 5 – to think about what information Mössbauer can provide about oxidation state of the metal, or that you can tell whether or not there are two distinct iron environments. In our class, we do brief units on X-ray crystallography including how to use and interpret cifs, and Mössbauer spectroscopy before this literature discussion. If those topics are not already addressed in a particular class it might be helpful to add them in or directly address those topics for the students as an introduction to the literature discussion.
This literature discussion explores the physical structures, electronic structures, and spectroscopic characterization of several porphyrin-based metal-organic frameworks through discussion of “Iron and Porphyrin Metal−Organic Frameworks: Insight into Structural Diversity, Stability, and Porosity,” Fateeva et al. Cryst. Growth Des. 2015, 15, 1819-1826, http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1021/cg501855k. The activity gives students experience visualizing and interpreting MOF structures, and gives students exposure to some of the methods used to characterize MOFs.
Students will be able to:
- Interpret and describe the bonding and structural characteristics of MOFs
- Apply knowledge of ligand field strength to electronic structure of MOFs
- Analyze X-ray crystallographic data to gain information about structural characteristics of MOFs
- Interpret Mössbauer spectra to gain information about electronic structure of MOFs
This literature discussion was designed for use in an advanced (upper-level) inorganic chemistry course, but could be used in a foundational inorganic course if students have already been introduced to d-splitting diagrams and are given some coverage of Mössbauer spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography. When covering MOFs in class, students frequently expressed that visualizing and understanding the bonding sites and extended 3D structures was very challenging. So, this literature discussion was developed specifically to address that. Students completed this activity in small groups. It is very helpful to advise students ahead of time to bring laptops (or instructor should have some available) and to have the cifs from the paper downloaded and ready to go. We used Mercury as a visualization software for this activity. This activity can easily be completed in one class period. It is also helpful if students have been provided with the article ahead of time and encouraged to look it over – otherwise the most time-consuming part of this activity was allowing time for students to examine the MOF structure images in the paper before being able to discuss and answer the questions with their groups.
Note on visualization of MOFs using Mercury: To answer the discussion questions, we used the ‘stick’ or the ‘ball and stick’ style. We also used the default packing scheme (0.4x0.4x0.4) and the 1x1x1 packing scheme. The packing scheme can be changed by selecting Packing/Slicing… in the Calculate menu. I also had students view the 3x3x3 packing scheme – while this is not necessary to answer the discussion questions, it was interesting for students to be able to visualize the extended structure of the MOFs.
During our first fellows workshop, the first cohort of VIPEr fellows pulled together learning objects that they've used and liked or want to try the next time they teach their inorganic courses.
The guided reading questions may be graded using the answer key.
These questions have not yet been assigned to students.
Guided reading and in-class discussion questions for "High-Spin Square-Planar Co(II) and Fe(II) Complexes and Reasons for Their Electronic Structure."
1. Bring together ligand field theory and symmetry.
Students should be able to identify symmetry of novel molecules in the literature.
Students should be able to explain d-orbital ordering in a coordination complex using ligand field theory.
Students should be able to identify donor/acceptor properties of previously unseen ligands.
Students should be able to apply your knowledge of electronic transitions to the primary literature.
Students should be able to become more familiar with 4-coordinate geometries.
Students should be able to predict magnetic moments of high-spin and low-spin square-planar complexes.
Students should be able to identify properties of ligands that favor formation of the highly unusual high-spin square planar complexes.
2. Students should comfortable with reading and understanding primary literature.
You do not have to assign all of the guided reading questions at once. You may consider assigning questions as they pertain to where you are in your inorganic chemistry class.
A portion of their grade (20%) is dedicated to literature discussions (4-6 over the course of the semester). The grading rubric involves 3 possible ratings for each question/answer: “excellent”, “acceptable”, or “needs work”.
Concepts covered during literature discussions will be included among exam materials.
This Guided Literature Discussion was assigned as a course project, and is the result of work originated by students Christopher Lasterand Patrick Wilson. It is based on the article “Deca-Arylsamarocene: An Unusually Inert Sm(II) Sandwich Complex” by Niels J. C. van Velzen and Sjoerd Harder in Organometallics 2018, 37, 2263−2271. It includes a Reading Guide that will direct students to specific sections of the paper that were emphasized in the discussion. This article presents a study of the reactivity of bulky CpAr-Et/iPr2 Sm complexes that is contrasted to the more well-known Cp*2Sm.
After reading and discussing this article, a student should be able to…
- Be more familiar with the chemistry of sandwich samarocene complexes.
- Understand how bulky ligands affect structure and reactivity in a sandwich complex.
- Apply the CBC method to identify ligand functions and metal valence number/ligand bond number.
- Understand how XRD bond distances can help determine a ligand charge.
I am planning on assigning this LO as a graded in-class group discussion. Students will be given a copy of the article, reading guide, and discussion questions one week in advance. On the day of the discussion, students will be assigned in groups of 2-3. They will then have one lecture period to answer the questions in writing as a group. [This article is among the free-access ACS Editors’ Choice.]