# Periodic trends

3 Jun 2017

## A Stable Monomeric SiO2 Complex with Donor-Acceptor Ligands: Foundational examination of Lewis dot structures and bond enthalpies

Submitted by Maria Carroll, Providence College
Evaluation Methods:

This learning object was created at the pre-MARM workshop in 2017 and as such has not been used in a classroom setting. The authors will update the learning object once they have used it in their classes.

Description:

This module offers students in an introductory chemistry or foundational inorganic course exposure to recent literature. Students will apply their knowledge of Lewis dot structure theory and basic thermodynamics to compare and contrast bonding in SiO2 and CO2.

Corequisites:
Course Level:
Prerequisites:
Learning Goals:

Students should be able to:

1. Describe the bonding in SiO2 and related compounds (CO2)

2. Use Lewis dot structure theory to predict bond orders

3. Apply bonding models to compare and contrast bond types and bond energies (sigma, pi)

4. Characterize bond strengths based on ligand donors

Implementation Notes:

Students should read the first paragraph of the paper prior to completing this learning object. They can be encouraged to read more of the paper, but the opening paragraph is the focus of this learning object.

Time Required:
50 min
18 Jan 2017

## calistry calculators

Submitted by Adam R. Johnson, Harvey Mudd College
Description:

I just stumbled on this site while refreshing myself on the use of Slater's rules for calculating Zeff for electrons. There are a variety of calculators on there including some for visualizing lattice planes and diffraction, equilibrium, pH and pKa, equation balancing, Born-Landé, radioactive decay, wavelengths, electronegativities, Curie Law, solution preparation crystal field stabilization energy, and more.

I checked and it calculated Zeff correctly but I can't vouch for the accuracy of any of the other calculators.

Prerequisites:
Course Level:
Corequisites:
Learning Goals:

This is not a good teaching website but would be good for double checking math

Implementation Notes:

I used this to double check my Slater's rules calculations (and found a mistake in my answer key!)

11 Jan 2017

## Group VI metal carbonyl compounds with pincer ligands

Submitted by Chip Nataro, Lafayette College
Evaluation Methods:

This was developed after the semester in which I teach this material. I look forward to using it next fall and I hope to post some evaluation data at that point.

Description:

This literature discussion is based on a short paper describing a series of Group VI metal carbonyl compounds that have pincer ligands (Organometallics, 201635, 229). While the paper is relatively straightforward, there are many subtle points that can be brought out by asking the right questions which hopefully this LO does. Some of the questions the students should be able to answer directly from the paper. I feel it is important that they do this. However, these questions nicely set up further questions that require the students to go beyond what is covered in the paper. In addition to the synthesis, there are many questions related to the spectroscopic characterization of these compounds. And of course, it wouldn't be one of my LOs if students weren't being asked to count electrons and do group theory.

Corequisites:
Prerequisites:
Learning Goals:

Upon completing this LO students should be able to

1. Use the CBC method to count electrons in the tungsten compounds in this paper
2. Describe the bonding interaction between a metal and a terminal carbonyl ligand
3. Explain how NMR can be used to characterize these compounds including a discussion of 183W satellites
4. Relate data from IR spectroscopy to the bonding interaction between a metal and a ligand and describe how the IR data can provide information about the electron donor ability of related ligands
5. Recognize that some observed trends just do not have good explanations

Course Level:
Implementation Notes:

This might be a bit on the long side, you could certainly omit some of the questions or have the students work on it outside of class.

Time Required:
50 minutes or so
4 Jan 2017

## Inorganic Chemistry for Geochemistry and Environmental Sciences Fundamentals and Applications by George W. Luther III

Submitted by Rachel Narehood Austin, Barnard College, Columbia University
Description:

This is a great new textbook by George Luther III from the University of Delaware.  The textbook represents the results of a course he has taught for graduate students in chemical oceanography, geochemistry and related disciplines.  It is clear that the point of the book is to provide students with the core material from inorganic chemistry that they will  need to explain inorganic processes in the environment.  However the material is presented in such a clear, logical fashion and builds so directly on fundamental principles of physical inorganic chemistry that the book is actually applicable to a much broader audience.  It provides a very welcome presentation of frontier orbital theory as a guide to predicting and explaining much inorganic chemical reactivity.  There are numerous very  helpful charts and tables and diagrams.  I found myself using the book for a table of effective nuclear charges when I was teaching general chemistry last semester.  The examples are much more interesting that the typical textbook examples and would be easy to embellish and structure a course around.  There is also a helpful companion website that provides powerpoint slides, student exercises and answers.  The book covers some topics not typically seen in inorganic textbooks like the acidity of solids but the presentation of this information makes sense in light of the coherent framework of the text.  We so often tell our students "structure dictates function".  This text really make good on that promise.  My only complaint is that I wish the title were something more generic so that I could use it for a second semester of introductory-esque material that we teach after students have taken a single semester of intro chem and two semesters of organic chemistry.  So much of what is covered in this textbook is precisely what a second semester sophomore chemistry major should know before proceeding on in the major.  But the title makes the book hard to sell to chemistry majors and that is regrettable.

Prerequisites:
Corequisites:
Course Level:
29 Dec 2016

## The Monsanto acetic acid process

Submitted by Chip Nataro, Lafayette College
Evaluation Methods:

This was developed after the semester in which I teach this material. I look forward to using it next fall and I hope to post some evaluation data at that point.

Description:

This literature discussion is based on one of early papers detailing the mechanism for the Monsanto acetic acid process (J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1976, 98, 846). In this communicaiton the identification of key intermediates in this process is carried out using infrared spectroscopy. While the paper is an easy read, there are lots of subtle points that can be brought out by asking the right questions which hopefully this LO does. Although we have plenty of excellent LOs asking students to identify the individual steps in the catalytic mechanism, this LO takes a slightly different approach and marches students through the mechanism.

Course Level:
Prerequisites:
Corequisites:
Subdiscipline:
Learning Goals:

Upon completing this LO students should be able to

1. Use the CBC method to count electrons in the rhodium compounds in this paper
2. Describe the bonding interaction between a metal and a terminal carbonyl ligand
3. Identify the various reactions taking place in the Monsanto acetic acid process
4. Relate data from IR spectroscopy to the bonding interaction between a metal and a ligand and to the identification of intermediates in this process
Time Required:
50 minutes or so
30 Jun 2016

## Electrochemical and Carbonyl Frequencies to Explain Ligand Non-Innocence in Organometallic Pincer Complexes

Submitted by R Bryan Sears, Emmanuel College
Evaluation Methods:

This LO has not been implemented, however, we recommend a few options for evaluating student learning:

● implement as in class group work, collect and grade all questions

● have students complete the literature discussion questions before lecture, then ask them to modify their answers in another pen color as the in-class discussion goes through each questions

●  hold a discussion lecture for the literature questions; then for the following lecture period begin class with a quiz that uses a slightly modified problem analogous to question #6 or #8 where a comparison between two different complexes from the paper is proposed, students are asked to summarize differences in their experimental values of CO frequency and potential and chemical reasoning for these differences.

Evaluation Results:

This LO was created for the 2016 TUES workshop and has not yet been tested in the classroom.

Description:

In this literature discussion, students read an Inorganic Chemistry paper (doi: 10.1021/ic503062w) about diarylamido-based PNZ pincer ligands and their Ni, Pd, and Rh complexes. Specifically, this paper uses IR and E1/2 potentials to demonstrate that the redox events occur not on the metal center but on the pincer ligands.  For these non-innocent ligands,  the electron donating ability of the pincer ligand towards the metal is more strongly influenced by the donors directly attached to the metal (phosphorus or nitrogen substituents) while the oxidation potential is more affected by the substituents on the diarylamine backbone.  This paper also provides x-ray crystallography data, NMR spectra (including J-coupling information), and a wealth of synthetic information.  This LO was created for the 2016 TUES Viper Workshop on organometallic chemistry.

Prerequisites:
Corequisites:
Course Level:
Learning Goals:

In answering these questions, a student will…

●      Employ textual clues to define chemical terms such as pincer ligands

●      Apply CBC rules to count electrons for pincer-ligand containing complexes

●      Relate v(CO) stretching frequencies to electron donating abilities of ligands

●      Integrate prior knowledge of periodic trends and electrochemical data from the paper to refine their definition of non-innocent ligands.

●      Correlate electrochemical potential to the “electron richness” of the complex

Implementation Notes:

Students should read the paper and complete the reading guide before the literature discussion.

We hope that instructors will mix and match questions that are appropriate to their classes.  In particular, instructors may want to be selective among the in-depth questions 5-19 depending on the desired emphasis.

Summary:

Questions 1-4 assess scientific reading competency and foundational concepts, question 5-11 address fundamental inorganic topics related to changing electron density on the metal, wheras questions 12-19 require deeper discussion of ligand non-innocence and experimental methods to determine difference in electron richness.

Note: we envision question 4 being divided up among multiple groups with each group getting one of the rows.  Then, the instructor should highlight the fact that all complexes had the same values.

Time Required:
1 class period
27 Jun 2016

## Online Homework for a Foundations of Inorganic Chemistry Course

Submitted by Sabrina G. Sobel, Hofstra University
Evaluation Methods:

Students are graded on a sliding scale based on the number of attempts on each question. An overall grade is assigned at the end of the semester, adjusted to the number of points allotted for the homework in the syllabus.

Evaluation Results:

Student performance on the overall homework assignments for the semester includes questions assigned on General Chemistry topics that are part of this class syllabus.

 2014 2015 2016 Number 40 47 41 Average 89% 80% 83% S.D. 15% 19% 23%

In addition to gethering data on overall  performance, I and my student assistants, Loren Wolfin and Marissa Strumolo, have completed a statistical study to assess performance on individual questions, and to identify problem questions that need to be edited. We identified two separate issues: incorrect/poorly worded questions, and assignment of level of difficulty. Five problematic questions were identified and edited. The level of difficulty was reassigned for eight questions rated as medium (level 2); six were reassigned as difficult (level 3), and two were reassigned as easy (level 1). I look forward to assessing student performance in Spring 2017 in light of these improvements. Please feel free to implement this Sapling homework in your class, and help in the improvement/evolution of this database.

Description:

The Committee on Professional Training (CPT) has restructured accreditation of Chemistry-related degrees, removing the old model of one year each of General, Analytical, Organic, and Physical Chemistry plus other relevant advanced classes as designed by the individual department. The new model (2008) requires one semester each in the five Foundation areas: Analytical, Inorganic, Organic, Biochemistry and Physical Chemistry, leaving General Chemistry as an option, with the development of advanced classes up to the individual departments. This has caused an upheaval in the treatment of Inorganic Chemistry, elevating it to be on equal footing with the other, more ‘traditional’ subdisciplines which has meant the decoupling of General Chemistry from introduction to Inorganic Chemistry. No commercial online homework system includes sets for either Foundations or Advanced Inorganic Chemistry topics. Sapling online homework (www.saplinglearning.com) has been open to professor authors of homework problems; they have a limited database of advanced inorganic chemistry problems produced by a generous and industrious faculty person. I have developed a homework set for a semester­-long freshman/sophomore level Inorganic Chemistry course aligned to the textbook Descriptive Inorganic Chemistry by Rayner-Canham and Overton (ISBN 1-4641-2560-0, www.whfreeman.com/descriptive6e ), and have test run it three times. Question development, analysis of student performance and troubleshooting in addition to topic choices, are critical to this process, especially in light of new information about what topics are taught in such a course (Great Expectations: Using an Analysis of Current Practices To Propose a Framework for the Undergraduate Inorganic Curriculum: http://pubs.acs.org/doi/full/10.1021/acs.inorgchem.5b01320 ).This is an ongoing process, and I am working to improve the database all the time.

Prerequisites:
Corequisites:
Course Level:
Learning Goals:

1.      Increase understanding in these topic areas:

a.      Acid-base chemistry and solvent systems

b.      Bonding models of inorganic molecules and complexes

c.      Bonding models in extended systems (solids)

d.      Descriptive chemistry and Periodic Trends

e.      Electronic structure of inorganic molecules, complexes and solids

f.       Extended structures: unit cells and other solid-state structural features

g.      Molecular structure and shape of inorganic molecules

h.      Inorganic Complexes nomenclature, bonding and shapes

i.       Redox chemistry and application to inorganic systems

j.       Thermodynamics as applied to inorganic solids and inorganic systems

2.      Practice using knowledge in these topic areas:

a.      Acid-base chemistry and solvent systems

b.      Bonding models of inorganic molecules and complexes

c.      Bonding models in extended systems (solids)

d.      Descriptive chemistry and Periodic Trends

e.      Electronic structure of inorganic molecules, complexes and solids

f.       Extended structures: unit cells and other solid-state structural features

g.      Molecular structure and shape of inorganic molecules

h.      Inorganic Complexes nomenclature, bonding and shapes

i.       Redox chemistry and application to inorganic systems

j.       Thermodynamics as applied to inorganic solids and inorganic systems

Implementation Notes:

The database of homework questions is available through Sapling Learning. They can be implemented as an online homework set for a class. Students need to buy access to the Sapling online homework for the duration of the class, typically \$45.

Time Required:
variable
23 Mar 2016

## Nanomaterials Chemistry

Submitted by Anne Bentley, Lewis & Clark College

This list includes a number of LOs to help in teaching nanomaterials subjects; however, it is not exhaustive.

Updated June 2018.

Prerequisites:
Corequisites:
Course Level:
30 Jun 2015

## Chemistry Infographics from Compound Interest

Submitted by Darren Achey, Kutztown University
Evaluation Methods:

Gauge student interest via surveys and evaluations at the end of the semester.

Evaluation Results:

Students by and large have been overwhelmingly positive about my "opening slides" and really enjoy the opportunitiy to understand how sunscreen works or why gemstones are colored as they are.

Description:

Compound Interest is a website that creates infographics for chemistry related events and items.  Specific examples of inorganic chemistry infographics include showing how the metal content in colored glass gives the glass its characteristic color, how the lighting of a match works with the conversion of red phosphorus to white phosphorus, and the various colors that transition metals can have in different oxidation states in water, among many other examples.

Prerequisites:
Corequisites:
Course Level:
Learning Goals:

Create a love of chemistry among college (and even high school) students by showing them how the world around them works in relation to chemistry.

Implementation Notes:

I use one infographic slide at the start of each general chemistry lecture (trying to match them up with topics we are covering when possible).  Students have really enjoyed seeing the more practical aspects of chemistry, even when we sometimes are covering more mundane/mathematical topics.  I like to read up a bit on the topic myself so that I can give a 2 minutes overview of the slide highlighting some of the things that I find interesting about the topic

Time Required:
However much you want to spend!