Electrochemistry

30 Jun 2016
Evaluation Methods: 

This LO has not been implemented, however, we recommend a few options for evaluating student learning:

● implement as in class group work, collect and grade all questions

● have students complete the literature discussion questions before lecture, then ask them to modify their answers in another pen color as the in-class discussion goes through each questions

●  hold a discussion lecture for the literature questions; then for the following lecture period begin class with a quiz that uses a slightly modified problem analogous to question #6 or #8 where a comparison between two different complexes from the paper is proposed, students are asked to summarize differences in their experimental values of CO frequency and potential and chemical reasoning for these differences. 

Evaluation Results: 

This LO was created for the 2016 TUES workshop and has not yet been tested in the classroom.

Description: 

In this literature discussion, students read an Inorganic Chemistry paper (doi: 10.1021/ic503062w) about diarylamido-based PNZ pincer ligands and their Ni, Pd, and Rh complexes. Specifically, this paper uses IR and E1/2 potentials to demonstrate that the redox events occur not on the metal center but on the pincer ligands.  For these non-innocent ligands,  the electron donating ability of the pincer ligand towards the metal is more strongly influenced by the donors directly attached to the metal (phosphorus or nitrogen substituents) while the oxidation potential is more affected by the substituents on the diarylamine backbone.  This paper also provides x-ray crystallography data, NMR spectra (including J-coupling information), and a wealth of synthetic information.  This LO was created for the 2016 TUES Viper Workshop on organometallic chemistry.

Corequisites: 
Course Level: 
Learning Goals: 

In answering these questions, a student will…

●      Employ textual clues to define chemical terms such as pincer ligands

●      Apply CBC rules to count electrons for pincer-ligand containing complexes

●      Relate v(CO) stretching frequencies to electron donating abilities of ligands

●      Integrate prior knowledge of periodic trends and electrochemical data from the paper to refine their definition of non-innocent ligands.

●      Correlate electrochemical potential to the “electron richness” of the complex

Implementation Notes: 

Students should read the paper and complete the reading guide before the literature discussion. 

 We hope that instructors will mix and match questions that are appropriate to their classes.  In particular, instructors may want to be selective among the in-depth questions 5-19 depending on the desired emphasis.

 Summary:

Questions 1-4 assess scientific reading competency and foundational concepts, question 5-11 address fundamental inorganic topics related to changing electron density on the metal, wheras questions 12-19 require deeper discussion of ligand non-innocence and experimental methods to determine difference in electron richness.

Note: we envision question 4 being divided up among multiple groups with each group getting one of the rows.  Then, the instructor should highlight the fact that all complexes had the same values.

 

Time Required: 
1 class period
30 Jun 2016

Cyclic voltammetry animations

Submitted by George Lisensky, Beloit College
Evaluation Methods: 

This approach has been used for several years in an analytical course as preparation for a cyclic voltammetry lab experiment. 

Evaluation Results: 

Most students who have spent 20 minutes engaged with the material can interpret their cyclic voltammetry lab results.

Description: 

This is a question based approach for a discovery activity about cyclic voltammetry. The slider bar on a movie can used to control a variable and the displayed graph is updated to show the results. (You could also just play the movie to get an idea of what changes.)

The questions to be answered are

What is the shape of a cyclic voltammogram?

How are cyclic voltammograms affected by E0?

How are cyclic voltammograms affected by concentration?

How are redox equilibria affected by scan rate?

What if there are two reductions?

How are cyclic voltammograms affected by the electron transfer rate?

How are cyclic voltammograms affected by changing scan rate if the electron transfer is slow?

Corequisites: 
Prerequisites: 
Subdiscipline: 
Learning Goals: 

Students will understand how to interpret the shape of a simple cyclic voltammogram and the effects of redox potential, concentration, scan rate, and electron transfer rate.

Implementation Notes: 

This can be used in lecture or assigned as homework/reading.

Time Required: 
20 minutes
27 Jun 2016

Online Homework for a Foundations of Inorganic Chemistry Course

Submitted by Sabrina G. Sobel, Hofstra University
Evaluation Methods: 

Students are graded on a sliding scale based on the number of attempts on each question. An overall grade is assigned at the end of the semester, adjusted to the number of points allotted for the homework in the syllabus. 

Evaluation Results: 

Student performance on the overall homework assignments for the semester includes questions assigned on General Chemistry topics that are part of this class syllabus. 

 201420152016
Number404741
Average89%80%83%
S.D.15%19%23%

In addition to gethering data on overall  performance, I and my student assistants, Loren Wolfin and Marissa Strumolo, have completed a statistical study to assess performance on individual questions, and to identify problem questions that need to be edited. We identified two separate issues: incorrect/poorly worded questions, and assignment of level of difficulty. Five problematic questions were identified and edited. The level of difficulty was reassigned for eight questions rated as medium (level 2); six were reassigned as difficult (level 3), and two were reassigned as easy (level 1). I look forward to assessing student performance in Spring 2017 in light of these improvements. Please feel free to implement this Sapling homework in your class, and help in the improvement/evolution of this database.

Description: 

The Committee on Professional Training (CPT) has restructured accreditation of Chemistry-related degrees, removing the old model of one year each of General, Analytical, Organic, and Physical Chemistry plus other relevant advanced classes as designed by the individual department. The new model (2008) requires one semester each in the five Foundation areas: Analytical, Inorganic, Organic, Biochemistry and Physical Chemistry, leaving General Chemistry as an option, with the development of advanced classes up to the individual departments. This has caused an upheaval in the treatment of Inorganic Chemistry, elevating it to be on equal footing with the other, more ‘traditional’ subdisciplines which has meant the decoupling of General Chemistry from introduction to Inorganic Chemistry. No commercial online homework system includes sets for either Foundations or Advanced Inorganic Chemistry topics. Sapling online homework (www.saplinglearning.com) has been open to professor authors of homework problems; they have a limited database of advanced inorganic chemistry problems produced by a generous and industrious faculty person. I have developed a homework set for a semester­-long freshman/sophomore level Inorganic Chemistry course aligned to the textbook Descriptive Inorganic Chemistry by Rayner-Canham and Overton (ISBN 1-4641-2560-0, www.whfreeman.com/descriptive6e ), and have test run it three times. Question development, analysis of student performance and troubleshooting in addition to topic choices, are critical to this process, especially in light of new information about what topics are taught in such a course (Great Expectations: Using an Analysis of Current Practices To Propose a Framework for the Undergraduate Inorganic Curriculum: http://pubs.acs.org/doi/full/10.1021/acs.inorgchem.5b01320 ).This is an ongoing process, and I am working to improve the database all the time.

Prerequisites: 
Corequisites: 
Course Level: 
Learning Goals: 

1.      Increase understanding in these topic areas:

a.      Acid-base chemistry and solvent systems

b.      Bonding models of inorganic molecules and complexes

c.      Bonding models in extended systems (solids)

d.      Descriptive chemistry and Periodic Trends

e.      Electronic structure of inorganic molecules, complexes and solids

f.       Extended structures: unit cells and other solid-state structural features

g.      Molecular structure and shape of inorganic molecules

h.      Inorganic Complexes nomenclature, bonding and shapes

i.       Redox chemistry and application to inorganic systems

j.       Thermodynamics as applied to inorganic solids and inorganic systems

2.      Practice using knowledge in these topic areas:

a.      Acid-base chemistry and solvent systems

b.      Bonding models of inorganic molecules and complexes

c.      Bonding models in extended systems (solids)

d.      Descriptive chemistry and Periodic Trends

e.      Electronic structure of inorganic molecules, complexes and solids

f.       Extended structures: unit cells and other solid-state structural features

g.      Molecular structure and shape of inorganic molecules

h.      Inorganic Complexes nomenclature, bonding and shapes

i.       Redox chemistry and application to inorganic systems

j.       Thermodynamics as applied to inorganic solids and inorganic systems

Implementation Notes: 

The database of homework questions is available through Sapling Learning. They can be implemented as an online homework set for a class. Students need to buy access to the Sapling online homework for the duration of the class, typically $45.

Time Required: 
variable
27 Jun 2016
Evaluation Methods: 

The practical exam (uploaded) is used as a metric to determine how well students are capable of answering a science question they haven't seen before on their own.  In other words, the practical exam tests them on their understanding of the material, and the scientific method itself.  If you'd like to measure this against students who have performed the experiment, but did not participate in a discussion session following the experiment, the practical exam scores should give you a measure for how students compare.  The questions asked on the practical exam are designed to be as objective as possible to eliminate variation in grading between sections.

Evaluation Results: 

TBA.

Description: 

This learning object is aimed at getting students to think critically about the data they collect in lab as they collect the data similar to how chemists typically conduct research.  They will be given a pre-lab video and a procedure prior to lab, conduct the experiment, and then upload their data to an Excel spreadsheet.  Students will then stay in their group to discuss the questions given to them on the worksheet in class with the instructor, and are allowed to continue working on them as a group up until the due date.

Class data from the original experiment will be uploaded to a public Excel spreadsheet that students will have access to in lab and at home, where the averages and standard deviation will be automatically calculated for them.  Students will be responsible for all other statistical analysis.  TVs, computers, or projectors are required in the lab in order to project data to the students.  Directly after the experiment, students will enter a discussion section with a worksheet to work on as a group that relates the collected data back to the original lecture on the topic covered in the experiment.

Course Level: 
Prerequisites: 
Learning Goals: 

The purpose of this Learning Object is to teach students not only a difficult concept such as "what is electrochemical potential", but also to teach students how to think about a science question, write a hypothesis, write a procedure to answer said hypothesis, analyze the data, discuss the results as a group, and make a conclusion about their original hypothesis.  Although this learning object is written for a general chemistry electrochemistry experiment, it can be easily modified to fit any laboratory experiment in any level of college chemistry (including organic chemistry, biochemistry, etc.  The end of the semester for a course that incorporates this template involves a practical exam.  In this exam, students are given a science question related to one of the experiments they conducted during the semester such that they use the same techniques used in the original experiment, but answers a far different question.  With their laboratory notebooks and previous procedure available to them during the exam, the instructor will be required to not assist the students (outside of safety and waste disposal concerns) in any way regarding the exam.

Corequisites: 
Equipment needs: 
  • TV, computer or projector to project data for students to look at class data.
  • Proper aqueous solutions and electrodes needed for the experiment outlined in the experimental procedure.
  • If desired, a potentiostat.  However, students should be able to design simple galvanic cells to answer the questions.
  • Solutions should be prepared before the laboratory experiment and practical exams are administered.  However, it is up to your discretion whether you want your students to also make the solutions themselves.
Implementation Notes: 
  • Lab should take ~2-2.5 hours
  • Discussion should be ~1 hr
  • DIfferent practical exams for different days in which the lab is being taught, in order to prevent students from sharing what the lab is about
  • Students should know what experiment the practical exam will be based on, but should not know the exact question being asked until the day of the exam.
  • Worksheets should be due 1 week after the lab, even though students discuss the questions that day.  This gives them time to complete the assignment.
  • Questions on discussion worksheet should be difficult, given that they have the instructor and students within their group to talk to for help.
  • For the practical exam, the solutions should be prepared beforehand to focus their efforts on answering the questions rather than making solutions and preparing to answer the questions. However, it is up your discretion.
Time Required: 
~3-4 hrs
23 Mar 2016

Nanomaterials Chemistry

Submitted by Anne Bentley, Lewis & Clark College

This list includes a number of LOs to help in teaching nanomaterials subjects; however, it is not exhaustive.

Updated June 2018.

Prerequisites: 
Corequisites: 
6 Jul 2015

Kinesthetic Learning: Cyclic Voltammetry Mechanisms

Submitted by Chip Nataro, Lafayette College
Evaluation Methods: 

I have only used this at the workshop. I do not anticipate teaching this material in class, so I doubt I will get any evaluation data. Perhaps the participants will comment on the effectiveness of this LO.

Description: 

This activity was created as part of a primer on cyclic voltammetry for the 2015 TUES workshop. The activity is designed to have one person represent the potential and several other people represent the molecules in solution. By simply scanning (walking through the line of people) and shaking hands, several simple mechanisms can be illustrated. The use of a joy buzzer with the first hand shake is highly encouraged, but not at all necessary. It adds a bit of levity to a serious topic and the author highly encourages using the joy buzzer on a "volunteer" that promised muffins years ago and has yet to deliver on said promise.

Learning Goals: 
  • A student will visualize simple cyclic voltammetry mechanisms with a kinesthetic experience.
  • A student will explain possible outcomes for single molecules upon oxidation or reduction. 

 

Prerequisites: 
Course Level: 
Corequisites: 
Equipment needs: 

Students

A joy buzzer (picture included in case you are unfamiliar with this object) is optional, but certainly fun.

Subdiscipline: 
Related activities: 
Implementation Notes: 

The idea behind this LO is for students to be able to visualize some of the possible outcomes of a species upon oxidation or reduction. It requires the instructor to select several students (4-6) to participate. The instructor and the students huddle before each demonstration so the students know how to behave. The slides that accompany this LO are used to show what the actual CVs look like after performing the visualization with student volunteers. The following instructions are also summarized in the notes on the slides.

In the case of a reversible system, the instructor (potential) walks past a line of students shaking their hands. The students turn 180 degrees upon shaking hands. When the instructor reaches the end of the line, they turn around and repeat the process in the opposite direction. In an irreversible system, after shaking hands, the students can do any number of thing to represent a chemical reaction taking place, the products of which are electrochemically silent. This could be putting their hands behind their backs, linking hands with another student, or anything else. Upon sweeping back through the line, the instructor discovers no hands to shake. In the third example, the instructor goes through the line very slowly the first time. This gives some of the students time to do something (grasp each other's hands for example) after having getting a hand shake. Not all of the students should undergo this reaction, so some of the students are available to shake hands upon reversing the scan. The second time, the instructor should sweep through fairly quickly so that the students don't have time to form another product. I encouraged my participants to make dramatic movements when I did the slow scan. In the final mechanism, upon shaking hands students were instructed to turn around and lift their hands up for a high five. This showed that an electroactive species was present, but it was somehow different from the starting material.

The joy buzzer is completely optional, but it was great fun. The person I did it to was not at all expecting it. It is electrochemistry after all, there should be a little shock.

Time Required: 
5-10 minutes
2 Jul 2015

Interpreting XPS and CV data from an Electrocatalysis Publication

Submitted by Karen McFarlane Holman, Willamette University
Evaluation Methods: 

Student completion of learning objectives will be assessed through the provided handout that would be turned in after discussions as well as student participation in discussion.  Alternatively, the questions could be used in a problem set or exam question, in which case the answers would be graded.

Evaluation Results: 

This LO was developed at the VIPER workshop on Heterogeneous Catalysis in 2015 and has not been tested.

Description: 

This is a learning object focused on analyzing a specific figure from a research article that show XPS and CV data on Ni(OH)2/NiOOH thin films that have incorporated Fe. The paper is one for which we created a “bigger picture” Literature Discussion LO during the 2015 VIPEr TUES workshop at UW, based on  Shannon Boettcher’s group’s “Nickel-Iron Oxyhydroxide Oxygen-Evolution Electrocatalysts: The Role of Intentional and Incidental Iron Incorporation”.  This LO could be used in conjunction with our more general Lit Discussion LO on the scientific method, or could be used as follow-up exercise as either a set of homework questions or exam questions.

Corequisites: 
Course Level: 
Prerequisites: 
Learning Goals: 

Working through these problems, a student will gain experience...

  • interpreting XPS spectra and identifying control experiments.

  • interpreting cyclic voltammograms.

  • tying together results from these two different types of experiments to gain insight into sample composition.
Implementation Notes: 

We envision at least three possible ways to implement this LO:  (1) students are provided with the student handout and the paper to complete before a class discussion; (2) students are given the handout after a class discussion on the related scientific method LO; or (3) these questions (or a subset thereof) are asked in an exam after the article has been read and discussed in class.

Time Required: 
15-30 minutes if used in class, highly dependent on students' previous knowledge of XPS and CV.
2 Jul 2015
Evaluation Methods: 

Students can hand in tthe first set of questions as homework which may be evaluated.  Class participation and group work may also be graded appropriately.

Evaluation Results: 

This is an untested LO.

Description: 

This learning object is based on discussion of the literature, but it follows a paper through the peer review process.  Students first read the original submitted draft of a paper to ChemComm that looks at photochemical reduction of methyl viologen using CdSe quantum dots.  There are several important themes relating to solar energy storage and the techniques discussed, UV/vis, SEM, TEM, electrochemistry, and catalysis, can be used for students in inorganic chemistry.

Unlike a typical literature LO where students discuss only the current science, this LO contains the actual reviewer comments to the original submitted manuscript as well as a link to the final version that was published in Journal of Materials Chemistry A.

DOI: 10.1039/C5TA03910J

Prerequisites: 
Learning Goals: 

Students will be able to...

·  Communicate the main ideas of a scientific research paper to classmates.

·  Identify the research area, importance of the research, and background information provided in a scientific paper.

·  Discuss areas of a paper that may be improved through revision.

·  Compare their views of necessary revisions with actual anonymous reviewers on a scientific paper and the eventual publication.

·  Understand the importance and shortcomings of the peer review process using an actual publication from the literature.

Implementation Notes: 

The LO has multiple sections which may be discarded or edited depending on the particular learning goals desired.  While the chemistry may be difficult for lower level students, the discussion of the peer review process may be valuable to students across multiple levels and even in writing courses.  Also provided are the authors' actual responses to the reviewers comments.  It should also be noted that the original article was submitted to ChemComm, but the subsequent revised article was submitted and accepted to Journal of Materials Chemistry A.

Time Required: 
Homework Assignment + 1 h in class
2 Jul 2015
Evaluation Methods: 

The assignment can be graded at the conclusion of the class period and then revisited at points later on an exam or at the final.  

Description: 

This question set has students examine the kinetics of the electrocatalytic reduction of CO2 to CO described in Sampson, D.L.; Nguygen, D., Grice, K.A.; Moore, C.E.; Rheingold, A.L.; Kubiak, C.P. Manganese Catalysts with Bulky Bipyridine Ligands for the Electrocatalytic Reduction of Carbon Dioxide:  Eliminating Dimerization and Altering Catalysis.  J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2014, 136, 5460-5471. 

Learning Goals: 

Students will be able to...

  • Identify the experimental conditions required for the pseudo-first-order kinetics assumption to be valid.
  • Compare and contrast electrochemical and chemical kinetics.
  • Apply given experimental data to deduce the reaction order with respect to all reactants in the electrocatalytic reduction of CO2.
  • Calculate the rate constant (kcat) for a given set of conditions.
Corequisites: 
Equipment needs: 

Students should have access to a computer with Microsoft Excel.  

 

 

Implementation Notes: 

This can be adapted to a general chemistry/introductory class or can be used as in-class discussion with upper level students.  Secondarily this can be given as a homework asssignment and then used in class as a discussion or as an in-class acctivity.  

 

 

Time Required: 
one 50 minute class
2 Jul 2015
Description: 

Upper division literature discussion of a JACS paper on electrocatalysis.  This activity serves as an introductory look at the paper as a homework assignment to prepare the student for a more in depth class discussion.

Course Level: 
Corequisites: 
Learning Goals: 

Learning Objectives

  1. Identify the structure of a research article
  2. Summarize the motivation and major goals of a study.
  3. Recognize the central reaction and catalyst of a paper.
  4. Analyze a catalytic cycle.
  5. Explain how particular conclusions were determined based on experimental data.
  6. Recognize applications of the techniques presented in the paper.
Time Required: 
50 minutes

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