Solid State and Materials Chemistry

8 Jun 2019

Crystallographic Resources at Otterbein University

Submitted by Kevin Hoke, Berry College
Description: 

This site is another excellent resource from Dean Johnston (see also his Symmetry resource). It uses JSmol (in a web browser) to display different types of "Packing" and "Point Groups". For Packing, users can select different sizes for the atoms, display multiple unit cells, and rotate the model on the screen. Different layers can be color highlighted. 

Other portions of the website include resources for incorporating crystallography into the undergraduate curriculum.

Prerequisites: 
Corequisites: 
Implementation Notes: 

I use the Packing Models as part of a homework assignment in which they are stepped through multiple models. The Packing models displayed are very straightforward to manipulate and I would not worrying about having first-year students interact with it. I have not used the Point groups portion yet, but I intend to share that with students who are learning symmetry.

As with some other JSmol-based models, atomic radii are used instead of ionic radii so the traditional color coding (yellow for sulfur, red for oxygen, gray for metal) will suggest for some models that the anions are smaller than cations. In my assignments, I have students evaluate how well that agrees with tables of ionic radii.

It can be used in any modern web browser that supports HTML5 and/or Java. I have accessed models successfully on my iPhone, though it is much easier to use on a larger screen.

8 Jun 2019

VIPEr Fellows 2019 Workshop Favorites

Submitted by Barbara Reisner, James Madison University

During our first fellows workshop, the first cohort of VIPEr fellows pulled together learning objects that they've used and liked or want to try the next time they teach their inorganic courses.

2 Jun 2019

Hyperphysics

Submitted by Barbara Reisner, James Madison University
Description: 

The hyperphysics website uses concept maps as a way to organize physics content knowledge: http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/hframe.html (condensed matter). I cam across this website while doing a review of the literature on what students know about semiconductors. There are nice explanations of many of the topics associated with semiconductors and they are organized in an unique way.

Prerequisites: 
Corequisites: 
Learning Goals: 

I haven't used this in teaching, but think it is a valuable resource for teaching bonding in the solid state.

3 Jan 2019

Venn Diagram activity- What is inorganic Chemistry?

Submitted by Sheila Smith, University of Michigan- Dearborn
Evaluation Methods: 

I did not assess this piece, except by participation in the discussion

Evaluation Results: 

I asked my students to write an open ended essay to answer the question (asked in that first day exercise): What is Inorganic Chemistry.

Interestingly, 2 of my 15 students drew a version of this Venn Diagram to accompany their essays.

Description: 

This Learning Object came to being sort of (In-)organically on the first day of my sophomore level intro to inorganic course. As I always do, I started the course with the IC Top 10 First Day Activity. (https://www.ionicviper.org/classactivity/ic-top-10-first-day-activity).  One of the pieces of that In class activity asks students- novices at Inorganic Chemistry- to sort the articles from the Most Read Articles from Inorganic Chemistry into bins of the various subdisciplines of Inorganic Chemistry.  As the discussion unfolded, I just sort of started spontaneously drawing a Venn Diagram on the board.  

I think Venn diagrams are an excellent logic tool, one that is too little applied these days for anything other than internet memes.  This is a nice little add-on activity to the first day.
 

Your Venn diagram will likely look different from mine.  You're right.

 

Learning Goals: 

The successful student should be able to:

  • identify the various sub-disciplines of inorganic chemistry.  
  • apply the rules of logic diagrams to construct overlapping fields of an Venn diagram.

 

Prerequisites: 
Corequisites: 
Equipment needs: 

colored chalk may be handy but not required.

Implementation Notes: 

I used this activity in conjuction with a first day activity LO (also published on VIPEr).

I shared a clean copy (this one) with the students after the class where we discussed this.

 

Time Required: 
10-15 minutes
12 Dec 2018

Foundations Inorganic Chemistry for New Faculty

Submitted by Chip Nataro, Lafayette College

What is a foundations inorganic course? Here is a great description

https://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/ed500624t

 

Prerequisites: 
Corequisites: 
Course Level: 
15 Jun 2018
Evaluation Methods: 

I typically evaluate this activity through class participation although the answer key is posted after class to let the students evaluate their own understanding of concepts.  The students do know that they will be tested on the material within the activity and usually I have a density problem on the exam.

Evaluation Results: 

This activity is designed to give the students more freedom as they move from the first density calculation to the last set of calculations.  Within the last set of calculations, they encounter a hexagonal unit cell so that may require some additional intervention to get them to think about how to calculate the volume of a hexagonal unit cell.

Description: 

This activity is designed to relate solid-state structures to the density of materials and then provide a real world example where density is used to design a new method to explore nanotoxicity in human health.  Students can learn how to calculate the density of different materials (gold, cerium oxide, and zinc oxide) using basic principles of solid state chemistry and then compare it to the centrifugation method that was developed to evaluate nanoparticle dose rate and agglomeration in solution.

 

Learning Goals: 

A student should be able to calculate a unit cell volume from structural information, determine the mass of one unit cell, and combine these two parameters to calculate the density for both cubic and hexagonal structures.  In addition, students will have an opportunity to read a scientific article and summarize the major findings, place data in a table, and explain the similarities and differences between the densities calculated in the activity and the experimental values that are reported in the literature.

Corequisites: 
Course Level: 
Equipment needs: 

None

Prerequisites: 
Implementation Notes: 

I have used this activity in our first semester inorganic chemistry course when we cover solid-state materials.  One thing to note is that I do use 2-D projections to describe structures and we cover that in a previous activity.  You could remove 2-D projections from this activity if it is not something that you previously covered.  

 

Time Required: 
This activity usually takes about 40 to 45 minutes.
3 Jun 2017
Evaluation Methods: 

Evaluation methods could include grading as an in-class worksheet, trading with a partner for peer grading or turned in as an out-of-class graded homework assignment.

Evaluation Results: 

Currently, this activity has not been tested in a classroom.  Please post how your students did!

Description: 

This in-class activity is designed to assist students with the visualization of solid-state close-packed structures, using metal-sulfide nanocrystalline materials as a an example system.  Students will be asked to visualize and describe both hexagonal closest packed (hcp) and cubic closest packed (ccp) structure types, and isolate the tetrahedral and octahedral holes within each structure type.  Lasty, students will be asked to compare and contrast four metal-sulfide unit cells discussed in the paper below.

 

Powell, A.E., Hodges J.M., Schaak, R.E. Preserving Both Anion and Cation Sublattice Features during a Nanocrystal Cation-Exchange Reaction: Synthesis of a Metastable Wurtzite-Type CoS and MnSJ. Am. Chem. Soc. 2016, 138, 471-474.

http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/jacs.5b10624

Learning Goals: 

In answering these questions, a student will…

  •  ...develop stronger visualaztion skills for extended, solid state materials;
  •  ...compare the packing sequence of close packed structures;
  •  ...locate tetrahedral and octahedral holes in close packed systems;
  •  ...count the number of tetrahedral / octahedral holes relative to the lattice ions; and
  •  …determine the number of atoms in a unit cell.
Equipment needs: 

The use of software - such as the demo version of CrystalMaker (http://www.crystalmaker.co.uk) or StudioViewer (Esko - app stores) - will be really helpful. StudioViewer can be run on cell phones, tablets, or MacOS devises. CrystalMaker is available for both Mac and PC. 

Instructions on using Studio Viewer to visualize structures on mobile devices are available in the learning object, Visualizing solid state structures using CrystalMaker generated COLLADA files.

 

Corequisites: 
Prerequisites: 
Implementation Notes: 

This learning object was developed at the 2017 MARM IONiC workshop on VIPEr and Literature Discussions. It has not yet been implemented.

This could be assigned for homework, but would likely work better in class with guidance. 

Time Required: 
This will probably take 50 minutes depending on how much work with models you do.
3 Jun 2017

Literature Discussion of "A stable compound of helium and sodium at high pressure"

Submitted by Katherine Nicole Crowder, University of Mary Washington
Evaluation Methods: 

Students could be evaluated based on their participation in the in-class discussion or on their submitted written answers to assigned questions.

Evaluation Results: 

This LO has not been used in a class at this point. Evaluation results will be uploaded as it is used (by Spring 2018 at the latest).

Description: 

This paper describes the synthesis of a stable compound of sodium and helium at very high pressures. The paper uses computational methods to predict likely compounds with helium, then describe a synthetic protocol to make the thermodynamically favored Na2He compound. The compound has a fluorite structure and is an electride with the delocalization of 2e- into the structure.

This paper would be appropriate after discussion of solid state structures and band theory.

The questions are divided into categories and have a wide range of levels.

Dong, X.; Oganov, A. R.; Goncharov, A. F.; Stavrou, E.; Lobanov, S.; Saleh, G.; Qian, G.-R.; Zhu, Q.; Gatti, C.; Deringer, V. L.; et al. A stable compound of helium and sodium at high pressure. Nature Chemistry 2017, 9 (5), 440–445 DOI: 10.1038/nchem.2716.

Corequisites: 
Learning Goals: 

After reading and discussing this paper, students will be able to

  • Describe the solid state structure of a novel compound using their knowledge of unit cells and ionic crystals
  • Apply band theory to a specific material
  • Describe how XRD is used to determine solid state structure
  • Describe the bonding in an electride structure
  • Apply periodic trends to compare/explain reactivity
Implementation Notes: 

The questions are divided into categories (comprehensive questions, atomic and molecular properties, solid state structure, electronic structure and other topics) that may or may not be appropriate for your class. To cover all of the questions, you will probably need at least two class periods. Adapt the assignment as you see fit.

CrystalMaker software can be used to visualize the compound. ICE model kits can also be used to build the compound using the template for a Heusler alloy.

Time Required: 
2 class periods
3 Jun 2017

An ion exchange method to produce metastable wurtzite metal sulfide nanocrystals

Submitted by Janet Schrenk, University of Massachusetts Lowell
Evaluation Methods: 

Evaluation methods are at the discretion of the instructor. For example, you may ask students to provide written answers to the questions, evaluate whether they participated in class discussion, or ask students to present their answers to specific questions to the class.

Description: 

In this literature discussion, students use a paper from the literature to explore the synthesis, structure, characterization (powder XRD, EDS and TEM) and energetics associated with the production of a metastable wurtzite CoS phase. Students also are asked define key terms and acronyms used in the paper; identify the goal of the experiments and determine if the authors met their goal. They examine the fundamental concepts around the key crystal structures available.  

 

Preserving Both Anion and Cation Sublattice Features during a Nanocrystal Cation-Exchange Reaction: Synthesis of a Metastable Wurtzite-Type CoS and MnS

Powell, A.E., Hodges J.M., Schaak, R.E. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2016, 138, 471-474.

http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/jacs.5b10624

 

There is an in class activitiy specifically written for this paper. 

Corequisites: 
Prerequisites: 
Learning Goals: 

In answering these questions, a student will be able to…

  • define important scientific terms and acronyms associated with the paper;

  • describe the rocksalt, NiAs, wurtzite, and zinc blende in terms of anion packing and cation coordination;

  • differentiate between the structure types described in the paper;

  • explain the difference between thermodynamically stable and metastable phases and relate it to a free energy diagram; and

  • describe the structural and composition information obtained from EDS, powder XRD, and TEM experiments.

Implementation Notes: 

This learning object was created at the 2017 IONiC Workshop on VIPEr and Literature Discussion. It has not yet been used in class.

Time Required: 
50 minutes
10 Apr 2017

Redox Chemistry and Modern Battery Technology

Submitted by Zachary Tonzetich, University of Texas at San Antonio
Evaluation Methods: 

I do not grade this activity, but if I did, I would look for class participation in the discussion or assign several of the questions to be turned in at a later date.

Evaluation Results: 

My impression of this activity is that it really helps students see the value of redox chemistry. In my experience, the aspects of redox chemistry we teach students (balancing equations, calculating cell potentials, etc.) seem both difficult and esoteric. This activity reinforces these concepts while demonstrating their importance to modern life. One of the biggest realizations the students come to is the relationship between cell voltage and the mass of the materials involved in the redox reaction.

Description: 

This In-Class Activity is a series of instructor-guided discussion questions that explore lithium-ion batteries through the lens of simple redox chemistry. I use this exercise as a review activity in my Descriptive Inorganic Chemistry course to help prepare for examinations. However, my primary purpose with this exercise is to impress upon students how basic concepts in redox chemistry and solid-state structure are directly relevant to technologies they use everyday. I do not focus too heavily on the design or operation of the batteries themselves, as other exercises published on VIPEr already do a very good job of that. My intention is to demonstrate how a basic knowledge of redox chemistry is the first step in understanding seemingly complex technologies.

Learning Goals: 

The primary goal of this In-Class Activity is for students to solidify their understanding of redox reactions, cell voltages and the relationship between electrical energy and potential. The exercise is also designed to show students how these considerations are part of the design of modern batteries. A secondary aspect of the activity explores the solid-state structure of metal-oxides and how these materials are important to the operation of the battery. At the conclusion of the activity, the student should be familiar enough with calculaing cell voltages and free energy changes that they can critically evaluate the components of a standard battery.

Equipment needs: 

None.

Course Level: 
Prerequisites: 
Corequisites: 
Implementation Notes: 

I display the pdf file on screen and use the white board to work out simple arithmetic aspects of the exercise, while soliciting responses from the class.

Time Required: 
45 minutes

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