Electronic spectroscopy

10 Jun 2015
Description: 

 

The resources on this website will help students learn concepts in materials chemistry, solid state chemistry, and nanoscience. The website provides links to

  • a video lab manual,
  • a cineplex of demonstrations,
  • kits that can be used for extended structures, and
  • interactive structures of solid state materials, Au nanoparticles and forms of carbon.

There videos and resources have applications across the chemistry curriculum. Many materials are inorganic. This is a great resource for people looking for ways to incorporate the new CPT guideline to discuss macromolecular, supramolecular, mesoscale and nanoscale systems within the framework of their existing curriculum.

Prerequisites: 
Corequisites: 
10 Jun 2015

Web Resources from the 2013 Inorganic Curriculum Survey

Submitted by Barbara Reisner, James Madison University

 

In the 2013 Inorganic Curriculum Survey, respondents were asked about the resources they used when they teach inorganic chemistry. About 20% of respondents selected "other" and provided information about these resources. A number of people mentioned specific websites. This collection consists of the websites submitted in the survey.

Prerequisites: 
Corequisites: 
24 Apr 2015

Tanabe Sugano Diagram JAVA Applets

Submitted by Amanda Reig, Ursinus College
Description: 

A series of JAVA applets of Tanbe-Sugano diagrams were developed by Prof. Robert Lancashire at the University of the West Indies.  These diagrams allow students to determine deltao/B values based on ratios of peak energies without the pain of rulers and drawing lines.  There are also features that allow a person to input values and automatically calculate certain parameters.  You can also quickly find values of delta_o and B for certain complexes via a drop-down menu on some of the pages (e.g. Cr3+ complexes).    

Course Level: 
Topics Covered: 
Prerequisites: 
Learning Goals: 

Students will be able to interpret absorption spectra using the provided Tanabe-Sugano diagram applets.

Subdiscipline: 
Implementation Notes: 

I use these applets when teaching Tanabe-Sugano diagrams in my class and students get significant practice with the applets through homework assignments and a lab experiment.

Note that you cannot use Chrome (Firefox or Internet Explorer both work) and you will likely need to add the website to your "safe" list in your JAVA settings in order for the applets to work.

8 Mar 2015

Community Challenge #2: Symmetry and MO Theory

Submitted by Nancy Scott Burke Williams, Scripps College, Pitzer College, Claremont McKenna College
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Prerequisites: 
5 Jan 2015

The Color and Electronic Configurations of Prussian Blue

Submitted by Erica Gunn, Simmons College
Evaluation Methods: 

Student answers to the reading comprehension questions were collected at the beginning of class and graded out of 10 points (largely based on participation and completeness of answers). 

Evaluation Results: 

Most students were able to identify the correct answers from the paper, though some were confused by the last section involving orbital calculations (this was expected, as most of these students have not yet had a course in quantum mechanics). 

Some students also had difficulty following the logic presented in the paper to predict differences in absorption band intensity for the different Fe compounds. Most recognized that the absorption band position was important and some realized that intensity also mattered, but most did not fully follow the arguments for assigning absorption spectra to one particular complex geometry. Most of the class discussion involved recreating the logic behind the peak assignment for the absorption spectra.

Description: 

I used this paper to illustrate several course concepts related to materials structure (crystal lattice structure, coordination number, crystal field theory and orbital splitting, symmetry, electronic spectra, allowed and forbidden transitions). This activity was paired with a laboratory experiment (see related VIPEr objects) in which students synthesized Prussian Blue, and gave students a really in-depth look at what was going on when they mixed those solutions together. Combined with another VIPEr activity that uses a more recent literature example (New Blue Solid, in related links), students gained a broad appreciation for how inorganic chemists can use these concepts to rationally design new materials.

 

 

Corequisites: 
Prerequisites: 
Learning Goals: 

Become familiar with reading chemical literature

Use symmetry and electronic configuration to interpret absorption spectra

Integrate understanding of course concepts to understand a "real life" literature example and enhance student interest 

Implementation Notes: 

These activities were used in a 200-level course, which happened to mostly populated by juniors and seniors. The reading questions were designed mainly to check for basic comprehension. Most students had no difficulty answering the "what" questions about the experiments done and facts presented, but many needed significant guidance to understand why the researchers made these particular measurements, and how they interpreted the data to arrive at the conclusions presented. Most of the class discussion focused on building a "big picture" overview of what was going on. This led to interesting questions about design of experiments and use of evidence in science. Several students were surprised at how much of the scientific argument they had missed in their first reading of the paper, even though they felt like they had a good grasp on the data that the authors had reported.

Time Required: 
1 hour
23 Sep 2014

Five Slides about Spectroelectrochemistry (SEC)

Submitted by Kyle Grice, DePaul University
Description: 

This "Five slides about" is meant to introduce faculty and/or students to Spectroelectrochemistry (SEC), a technique that is used in inorganic chemistry research and other areas. SEC is a powerful tool to examine species that are normally hard to synthesize and isolate due to instability and high reactivity. Papers with examples of SEC techniques are provided on the last slide. 

 

Corequisites: 
Course Level: 
Learning Goals: 

Students should be able to describe spectroelectrochemistry

Students should be able to conceptually explain how a spectroelectrochemical cell works 

Students should be able to explain the benefits of spectroelectrochemistry as compared to standard synthesis and spectroscopy approches

Implementation Notes: 

Ideally, the students would take this introduction and then go and examine specific instances of SEC in the literature. Alternatively, this can be used to help explain research papers that are being discussed that use SEC techniques. 

Students should already have an understanding of the basics of electrochemistry and spectroscopy prior to learning SEC, so this would be best suited for an upper division, special topics course in Inorganic Chemistry or Spectroscopy. There are some nice LO's on these techniques already on Ionic Viper (see related activities). 

There are some good images of the specifics of SEC cell designs on company websites or journal articles (the Organometallics article shown in the web resources is one such article). 

IR-SEC is included in the paper that is the focus of the "Dissection Catalysts for Artificial Photosynthesis" LO. 

Time Required: 
15 min
Evaluation
Evaluation Methods: 

This LO was made as a followup to the 2014 Ionic Viper workshop and has not been implemented yet. However, I plan on implementing it in a "Special Topics in Inorganic Chemisry" course in the future. 

Evaluation Results: 

None yet, will be provided upon implementation. 

15 Sep 2014

Fe2GeS4 Nanocrystals for Photovoltaics

Submitted by Anne Bentley, Lewis & Clark College
Evaluation Methods: 

My student led a 20-minute class discussion of this article in the spring of 2014.  The other students in the class were asked to post two questions about the article to moodle before the class meeting, but they were not asked to complete the literature discussion questions due to assignment overload at the end of the semester.

Evaluation Results: 

The six students posted good questions about the article, some of which I have incorporated into the literature discussion. One student asked why Ge was used instead of Si.  (My guess is that Si is too prone to oxidation - it's consistent with redox potentials.)  Another student wanted to know if any articles had been published after this one describing further progress.  At least two asked how the authors could determine that the photocurrent was p-type.

Description: 

I asked the students in my junior/senior inorganic course to develop their own literature discussion learning objects and lead the rest of the class in a discussion of their article.  Student Johann Maradiaga chose this article describing the synthesis and characterization of Fe2GeS4 nanocrystals with potential applications in photovoltaic devices (Sarah J. Fredrick and Amy L. Prieto, “Solution Synthesis and Reactivity of Colloidal Fe2GeS4: A Potential Candidate for Earth Abundant, Nanostructured Photovoltaics” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2013, 135, 18256-18259. DOI: 10.1021/ja408333y).  The article describes the synthesis in hexadecylamine/octadecene of Fe2GeS4 nanoparticles and their characterization using powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, UV-vis spectroscopy, and photocurrent measurements.  Building on Johann’s original set of questions, I developed this literature discussion, which is suitable for use in inorganic chemistry courses. Many thanks to article author Sarah Fredrick for reviewing the assignment and adding some great questions.

Corequisites: 
Course Level: 
Learning Goals: 

After reading and discussing this paper, a student will be able to:

  • Understand how variable growth rates along different crystal planes result in specific shapes, and predict a resulting shape given a particular set of growth rates
  • Compare the oxidation behavior of Fe and Ge over time using XPS data
  • Describe a photocurrent measurement experiment and compare the photocurrent behavior of p-type and n-type semiconductors.
  • Explain the value of a communication as compared to a longer research article

 

Implementation Notes: 

Students do not need to be experts to understand this article, but previous exposure to solid state concepts including semiconductor electronic structure, solid state phases, nanoparticle synthesis, and capping agents will be helpful to them.  Alternatively, the article could be used to introduce these topics.

This JACS communication is fairly short and written clearly, so it could make a good first literature discussion for students without previous experience reading journal articles.

I have included a large number of possible questions in the literature assignment, but as always, users should feel free to pick and choose from the options and/or add their own.

Time Required: 
45 minutes (approximately)
12 Sep 2014

Maggie's LOs

Submitted by Chip Nataro, Lafayette College
Corequisites: 
Prerequisites: 
4 Aug 2014

Suite of LOs on Biomimetic Modeling

Submitted by Sheila Smith, University of Michigan- Dearborn

This suite of activities can be used as a unit exploring the use of small molecule models and biophysical techniques to illuminate complicated biomolecules.  The Parent LO:  Modeling the FeB center in bacterial Nitric Oxide reductase is a short, data-filled and well-written article that is approachable with an undergraduate's level of understanding.

Course Level: 
22 Jul 2014

The Structure and Function of Transferrin

Submitted by Christopher Bailey, Wells College
Description: 

These Five Slides About examine the structure and function of the iron binding and transport protein transferrin. Students learn that transferrin also acts as an iron buffer and as a potential antimicrobial agent. The structure of the protein is explored in detail; it consists of a single polypeptide (80kDa) folded into two lobes, each of which can bind a single iron in a high affinity region. Changes in the protein as a result of iron uptake is discussed. The iron binding region and the requirement of a bidentate synergistic anion (carbonate) are examined. Finally, the relationship between transferrin and iron-overload is presented.

Prerequisites: 
Corequisites: 
Learning Goals: 

After examining these slides, students should be able to:

  • Discuss the various biological functions of the transferrins and its importance in these roles.
  • Describe the overall structure of the protein.
  • Describe the iron binding sites, including the importance of the synergistic anion.
  • Discuss the importance of this protein in the treatment of iron overload disorders.

 

Implementation Notes: 

These slides can be used at any point that the protein transferrin is discussed. They can be used either for straight lecture or as part of an in-class discussion. I have used them in class as an introduction to the protein prior to assignment of an article from the primary literature.  I also use them for students who who are interested in doing undergraduate research with me.

Although I have not yet tried this, I am planning on using these slides while at the same time having students access the crystal structure of ovotransferrin (1OVT) on the PDB. The ability to "rotate" the protein may make its overall structure and the iron binding sites easier to discern.

Time Required: 
10-20 minutes
Evaluation
Evaluation Methods: 

To date I have used these slides only as an introduction to transferrin, both in class and as part of a research project. Evaluation was based on the understanding of these topics as applied to readings from the primary literature, through discussion, and through inclusion of these background topics in research reports. As described in the implementation notes I intend to connect these slides to an exercise involving the PDB. A more direct means of evaluation should be obtained at that point.

Evaluation Results: 

Although no formal evaluation of the effectiveness of these slides has been undertaken, my experience is that they are a good introduction to the topic---students refer to them correctly in discussions and I find that they understand this background enough to attack articles from the primary literature successfully.

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