8 Mar 2011

hybrid orbitals for main group and transition metal complexes

In-Class Activity

Submitted by Adam R. Johnson, Harvey Mudd College
This handout shows how the s, p and d orbitals of appropriate symmetry can mix in Cnv and Dnh point groups (n = 3-4). A high-level Gaussian calculation serves to "back up" my "back-of-the-envelope" drawings of some of the hybrid orbitals.
Microsoft Office document icon hybrid orbitals.doc690.5 KB
Learning Goals: 

A student will be able to hybridize orbitals of appropriate symmetry to help form MO diagrams.

A student will be able to draw pictures of hybrid orbitals.

Equipment needs: 
Related activities: 
Implementation Notes: 
I use this handout on two separate locations in my upper level inorganic chemistry course.  Once (the front side) when we do MO diagrams for main group compounds, and again (the back side) when we do MO diagrams for transition metal complexes.  I usually give them the handout and some in-class problems to work through where they can practice making hybrid orbitals.  I find that hybrid orbitals helps the students see orbital mixing in order to get the correct CFT splitting pattern in (especially) square planar and tetrahedral complexes.
Time Required: 
part of a 50 minute class period
Evaluation Methods: 
For this activity, I don't usually assess it.  It is "optional" and "advanced" material that I show them, and they are welcome to use it if they find it helpful, but I don't require that they use this technique.
Evaluation Results: 
there are usually 2-5 students per year (out of 20-30 total) who regularly use hybridization as a method for forming the correct CFT splitting patterns in their MO diagrams. 
Creative Commons License: 
Creative Commons Licence


I have one question 

how can obtain hybrydization coeffecince when Px orbital have angle 15 and 25 with respect to X axis in SP2 hybrid also Y axis in constraction wavefunction??????


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